Spring work on a garden or garden plot is always troublesome. It is in the early spring that they prepare the soil and plant the main vegetable crops. One of the main areas that should be given special attention in the spring is the preparation of soil and ridges in a greenhouse or in open ground for planting cucumbers.
Soil preparation in the greenhouse
Cucumbers grow well and bear fruit abundantly on warm soils. Therefore, the greenhouse should be located in bright and sunny areas. Preference should be given to sandy and light loamy soils. Heavy clay soils need to be loosened with sand at the rate of a pair of buckets per square meter.
It is very important to take into account soil acidity in the greenhouse. Planting cucumbers is carried out on slightly acidic or neutral soils with pH values of 6.0-6.5. Acidic soils need to be added at the stage of autumn digging of lime in the amount of 0.3-0.5 kg per square meter. The best option is to plant cucumbers in the second or third year after the liming procedure.
In order to properly prepare the soil for cucumbers, it is necessary to carry out an autumn deep digging of the greenhouse soil, and in the spring, carry out thorough cultivation and shallow digging. During spring digging, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied. Cultivated soils require about 8-10 kg of organics per square meter. About 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate per square meter of greenhouse area should be applied as mineral fertilizers. In the open ground for cucumbers, it is recommended to make a warm bed using cow or horse manure as biofuel.
How to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse
To obtain strong seedlings or viable seedlings, it is necessary to correctly carry out pre-sowing preparation of cucumber seeds. The standard technology for pre-plant preparation is to carry out the following activities:
- The easiest way to increase the cucumber germination rate is to soak the seed in room temperature water.
- In order to reject seeds unsuitable for planting, you should soak them in a solution of ordinary table salt, prepared at the rate of 50 g of substance per liter of water.
- Before planting the seed, it is recommended to warm it up at a temperature of 60 ° C for two hours.
- For seed disinfection by dry dressing, the NIUIF-2 or Granozan preparation is used at the rate of 3 g of the agent for each kilogram of seed material. The TMTD preparation has a good disinfecting effect, which should be used at the rate of 4 g per kilogram of seeds.
- The method of wet disinfection involves the use of a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, in which the seeds are immersed for ½ hour, after which they should be washed with running water.
For many years, most gardeners have used the method of germinating cucumber seeds on wet tissue. You can also reduce the risk of infection of seedlings by diseases by treating the seeds with Prestige or Fitosporin.
The seedling method of growing many garden crops has significant advantages, including earlier harvesting and prolonging the fruiting period of plants. High-quality seedlings of cucumbers can be grown on the window, observing the appropriate technology. The key to obtaining strong and high-quality seedlings is strict adherence to temperature and light conditions. In addition, it is necessary to maintain an optimal level of humidity in the range of 50-60%.
After sowing seeds of cucumbers and before the appearance of mass shoots, the temperature regime in the room should be at least 22-24 ° C. After the emergence of seedlings, the temperature must be lowered to 16-18 ° C, which will not allow seedlings to stretch unnecessarily. It is important to accompany the lowering of the temperature regime with additional lighting. If necessary, pickling of cucumber seedlings into separate seedling containers is carried out.
Properly grown seedlings of cucumbers have fairly strong stems no more than 25-28 cm high, with short internodes, dense and dark green leaves, and also have a well-developed root system.
Landing in the greenhouse
Planting cucumbers in a greenhouse presents special difficulties even for beginner gardeners. There are two ways to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse: seedlings and seeds. Planting seedlings provides an opportunity to get a fairly early harvest.
In the soil and climatic conditions of the middle zone of our country, seedlings of cucumbers in greenhouses can be planted from mid-May. Seed is sown in a greenhouse in the last decade of May. It is necessary to make a groove for seeds in the soil, and holes 1.5–2.5 cm deep are made in the groove itself. Seeds spread out with a distance of 30–35 cm from each other should be sprinkled with fertile soil.
It is best to plant cucumbers on ridges of open ground after cauliflower or white cabbage, as well as tomatoes. In addition, onions, carrots, peppers and potatoes are considered good predecessors for this crop. In the spring, after drying of the soil, it is necessary to form high ridges on the landing site. For each square meter of area, 25-30 g of urea or ammonium nitrate should be added, as well as 30 g of superphosphate. For the fastest and most effective heating, the ridge should be closed for a while with a transparent film.
Cucumbers are planted on ridges in open ground with prepared seeds or seedlings. Leave a distance between plants of at least 20-25 cm. The standard distance from one ridge to another should be at least one meter. Sowing seeds is carried out in an ordinary or nesting way. Rows are recommended to be placed with a distance of 70-90 cm and a gap between the holes of 18-20 cm. The standard seed depth is no more than 3-4 cm. The nesting method involves the location of the planting holes according to the pattern of 60 x 60 cm or 70 x 70 cm.
Features of agricultural technology
Standard agricultural technology for growing cucumbers includes such basic activities as watering, top dressing, cultivating, weeding and pinching. Caring for cucumbers involves observing the following recommendations:
- watering cucumbers after planting, as well as during the period of active fruiting, is required to be carried out regularly, due to the formation of a fairly large green mass during the growing season;
- for irrigation of cucumbers, it is necessary to use only warm and settled water, the temperature of which should be approximately 15-18 ° C;
- in greenhouse conditions, for carrying out irrigation measures and maintaining humidity at an optimal level, it is advisable to install a drip irrigation system;
- vegetable culture responds very well to the timely application of organic fertilizers in the form of mullein, manure or bird droppings;
- the first feeding of cucumbers is made a couple of weeks after germination, and the second time the vegetable crop should be fed at the flowering stage; the last top dressing should be done in the phase of active fruiting of cucumbers, which favorably affects the quality and quantity of the crop.
When and how to feed cucumbers in a greenhouse
A good result is the cultivation of cucumbers on a nonwoven fabric. In this case, the ridge is covered with non-woven material, on which cross sections of 18-20 cm in size are to be made. The edges of the material should be bent at the places of the cuts and the landing holes of the required size should be made. After watering, seedlings or seeds are placed in the holes, after which they are sprinkled with fertile soil. Care for such plantings is as simple as possible and consists in watering and feeding, as well as the formation of the aerial parts of plants.