Sea buckthorn is a fairly common berry crop and is successfully grown in most regions of our country. When choosing a sea buckthorn variety, it is necessary to give preference to zoned varieties, in addition, not only female but also male plants should be planted on the site in a ratio of 3-4: 1, which will ensure pollination and fruiting.
How to distinguish between male and female sea buckthorn
The annual and abundant fruiting of sea buckthorn can be achieved only when both female and male type plants grow together on the same site. When purchasing planting material or self-propagation by cuttings, distinguish sea buckthorn masculine from feminine is easy.
Regardless of the type and variety, it is necessary to pay attention to the following features of the popular berry culture:
- the plant has two types of buds, which are called growth, or vegetative, and fruit-growth, or generative-vegetative;
- the plant is not distinguished by growth buds, which are almost identical in male and female plants;
- fruit and growth buds have significant differences and make it easy to determine both a female and a male plant;
- male kidneys are larger and are characterized by the presence of several pronounced scales.
Gardeners should take into account the fact that buds of exclusively growth type are formed on young plants, therefore it is possible to determine the sex of a berry culture with absolute certainty at the age of three to four years.
Male and female buckthorn plants
How to plant a crop
Features of agricultural technology of sea buckthorn are quite simple. It should be remembered that this photophilous culture grows well in areas that are not obscured by buildings or other tall plants. Landing in most regions must be carried out in the spring in accordance with the following rules:
- the site for the cultivation of sea buckthorn should be represented by light, fertile, fairly moist soils;
- berry plants should not be planted in areas with stagnant water and high groundwater;
- too acidic soils require mandatory pre-planting with slaked lime at the rate of 0.5 kg per square meter;
- work on deep digging and liming is best done in the autumn;
- heavy loamy soils need to improve air permeability, so you need to make coarse river sand, humus or peat;
- You can plant plants with a curtain, placing a male plant in the center, and around it female type bushes;
- Rowing is allowed with a standard distance between plants of approximately 2.0-2.5 m.
In the autumn digging, it is advisable to enrich the soil with the main nutrients. For this purpose, 0.25 kg of superphosphate and 40-45 g of potassium salt should be added per square meter. If necessary, potash and phosphate fertilizers are applied directly to the planting pit. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers and lime can not be poured into the landing hole, which is due to the risk of a burn of the root system. It is necessary to plant sea buckthorn in pre-prepared planting pits measuring 65x65x65 cm. Two-year-old seedlings that are arranged according to the 2x4 m or 1.5 x 3.5 m scheme are best established.
Sea buckthorn can be classified as unpretentious and possessing sufficient resistance to adverse external influences of berry crops. The plant requires minimal attention, and The main agricultural activities carried out in the conditions of home gardening are as follows:
- in the early spring, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of the crown, removing all dried, frostbitten or thickening branches;
- at the end of May, sea buckthorn plantings are sprayed with a solution of malathion diluted in an amount of 25 g per 10 l of water;
- for prophylactic purposes, it is recommended to spray plants with 0.2-0.3% chlorophos in the first half of July;
- if necessary, twice a year, in spring and autumn, water-charging irrigation is carried out, followed by loosening of the soil in near-stem circles;
- for feeding sea buckthorn, you can use both organic matter in the form of manure or bird droppings, and mineral complex fertilizers.
With proper planting and good care of the sea buckthorn tree, the berry culture is capable of abundant fruiting up to 30-40 years annually.
Tips & Tricks
Of course, it is preferable to purchase seedlings of berry culture in special plant nurseries, where specialists will help determine the gender of the plant. Meanwhile, experienced gardeners recommend choosing the following features when choosing planting material:
- male plants have a nearly flat and slightly turned outward leaf plate;
- a cross section of a leaf of a male plant may resemble a bird in flight;
- the leaves of the female plant are concave from the edges and resemble a boat;
- a cross section of a leaf of a female plant may resemble a bowl.
How to care for sea buckthorn
Differences can be seen in the density of plaque on the leaves. Such plaque on male plants has a bluer tint, while the leaves of female plants have a color that is as close as possible to green.