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Grapes are a popular fruit and berry crop. Modern summer residents use shrub varieties for planting in their plots. Commercial horticulture grows reference varieties for further wine making. Landscape designers use green fencing from this plant in their designs. Each happy owner of this shrub should remember the danger of white bloom on the leaves of grapes. A dangerous fungal disease requires timely treatment and competent prevention.
Vine bushes are a great option for planting in a garden. The plant is often used as an ornamental hedge. Thanks to the dense foliage, the grapes create coolness and shade. When caring for him, they do not make much effort. It is worth paying special attention to preventive measures of plant diseases. They can significantly spoil the planting, harvest.
The main manifestation of the lesion is considered to be a white bloom on the leaves, bunches. To determine the type of disease, it is necessary to check the grapes for the presence of characteristic signs:
- White bloom on the leaves, berries, reminiscent of flour, signals the infection of the shrub with powdery mildew - a fungal disease. It spreads on leaves, flowers, shoots. Fungal spores extract nutrients from the plant. With the progression of the disease, the leaves turn black and dry out. Spoiled parts of grapes are carriers of powdery mildew.
- Yellow oily spots may form on the vine. If, when wet, they become a fluffy white bloom, then the grapes are affected by mildew. With the course of the disease, the leaves turn yellow-brown, dry out, and crumble. Mildew also applies to inflorescences, fruits. It is a big threat to a quality crop.
Often foliage is spoiled on top. But don't overlook the bottom. Sometimes a white bloom first appears there.
To prevent the appearance of white bloom on grapes, one should take into account the reasons for its formation on the grape bush:
- Uncomfortable environmental conditions. Frequent rains, severe drought, winds can provoke the spread of fungal diseases.
- Insufficient fertilization. Lack of the necessary plant feeding leads to a weakening of its immunity.
- Lack of competent care for the shrub. Poor watering and improper pruning lead to drying or waterlogging of the soil, overgrowth of foliage. A humid, dark environment is favorable for the development of fungal diseases.
- Poor cleaning of the area around the planting. Fungal spores persist on fallen leaves for a long time. Even twenty years later, they are able to penetrate foliage, flowers, berries, shoots.
- Poor quality soil, wrong landing site. A shrub planted in an unfavorable location will not grow well. An unsatisfactory soil composition will limit the intake of essential nutrients.
There are many reasons for the appearance of plaque on the grape bush. Fungal bacteria are carried by birds and rain. Only high-quality care and timely preventive measures can prevent plant infection.
Plaque control methods
Treatment of affected grapes should be carried out without delay. Experienced gardeners give simple tips on how to deal with the effects of white bloom:
- Spraying with potassium permanganate. Several manganese crystals are dissolved in 1 liter of water. The liquid should turn out to be a light pink hue. The solution is carefully treated with sick and healthy leaves of the bush. The procedure is carried out once every two weeks, avoiding the flowering period.
- Colloidal sulfur. Stir 10 g of the component in a bucket of water. The solution is applied to the shrub once a week until the flowers appear. The method is used for serious damage.
- A solution of ash and laundry soap. 1 kg of ash is dissolved in 10 liters of water. Soap is necessary to better fix the mixture on the leaves of the grapes. Before spraying, the product should be infused for 3-4 days.
- Bordeaux liquid with colloidal sulfur. A mixture of the two is considered a potent anti-white agent. For 5-7 liters of water, they are mixed in a 1: 1 ratio. You can process it right away.
- Chemicals. Spray insecticides can be purchased at specialized stores. Among the most effective are Topaz, Ecosila, Ridomil Gold. They are used individually or simultaneously.
The decision of how to treat the plant is made based on the scale of the spread of plaque, the degree of neglect of the disease. It is worth considering that grapes can get used to the method of treatment used. It is recommended to alternate treatments to obtain the most beneficial effect.
Preventive measures to prevent the appearance of white bloom on grape bushes are mandatory. In some cases, even the most well-groomed plant is affected by fungal diseases. Regular implementation of the recommended actions will increase the level of protection of the grapes:
- The use of solutions, special preparations. In the spring, before flowering, the bush is treated with a solution of sulfur-based pharmaceutical products. Immediately after winter, grape shoots are sprayed with water with potassium permanganate. The procedure is repeated with the onset of cold weather before covering the plant.
- High-quality, timely fertilization. Grapes quickly absorb nutrients from the soil. In this regard, the soil ceases to be useful - the plant weakens. Proper feeding is important. It is recommended to apply potash and phosphorus fertilizers in the spring. Ash, sawdust, humus are perfect for this purpose.
- Cleaning of the territory. Fungal spores tend to linger for a long time in the affected fallen leaves, shoots, fruits. They then spread easily to healthy plants. In this regard, it is necessary to collect and destroy dry branches, leaves, rotten fruits.
- Regular inspection of the grapes. A thorough check of the shoots of the bush will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease, the use of treatment methods at the initial stage.
- Pruning. Dense foliage and curling, flexible shoots often hide the first signs of illness. It is important to cut off excess branches in a timely manner, remove foliage. The procedure is carried out in the spring - after the wintering of the plant, in the winter - before the shelter. During the season, when examining the grapes, dry shoots are removed.
Many consider grapes to be a capricious plant. It is unpretentious in care, but it is affected by dangerous fungal diseases. Do not neglect simple prevention methods to maintain a healthy planting, obtain a bountiful harvest.
Grapes are a great option for planting in a small summer cottage or a large garden area.
The plant performs many useful functions: from fruiting to decorating the territory. In some cases, a white bloom on its leaves and bunches can interfere with the qualitative development of a shrub. This dangerous fungal disease is treatable. Timely preventive measures should be taken, the necessary care procedures should be carried out. They will prevent damage or death of the plant.