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Regardless of the type of livestock, the latter requires certain conditions for normal development. It takes a lot of effort for breeders to create a favorable living environment, since it is necessary not only to ensure a constant supply of food and water, but also to clean up after the animals. The use of bacteria for litter in the pigsty, which "digests" the waste of livestock, helps to facilitate the work of farmers.
Description of technology
Litter with bacteria (fermentation or deep) is a floor of straw (they also use shavings or sawdust), in which specially removed microorganisms are placed. The latter process the waste products of animals, thanks to which the place of residence of livestock remains always clean. One of the features of fermentation litters is that all processes take place in the lower layers. As a result, the flooring surface remains dry for an extended period.
In the process of processing waste products inside the pigsty, the temperature rises to +25 degrees. This allows cattle breeders not to worry about the need to organize heating in the autumn-winter period.
The frequency of replacing bio-litter depends on the quality of the latter. High-value foods can be re-refined every three years. Budget options change more often. At the same time, the effectiveness of bio-litter directly depends on the number of living animals: the more livestock, the better the flooring works.
Advantages and disadvantages of using
The advantages of bio-litter include the following:
- ease of use (bio-litter is laid in almost the same way as ordinary straw flooring);
- the absence of rodents, since a high temperature and cleanliness is constantly maintained in the pigsty;
- fermentation bedding is suitable for pigsties containing 3-5 or more animals;
- the absence of an unpleasant odor in the pigsty, since bacteria prevent the release of ammonia into the air;
- animals develop better, as they are constantly warm and clean;
- there is no need for frequent floor changes;
- old bio-litters can be used as fertilizer.
As noted, fermentation bedding reduces labor costs and simplifies livestock breeding. But in comparison with straw flooring, this product is significantly more expensive. Over time, however, the cost of bio-litter pays off.
Types of litter
Fermentation litters are subdivided into several types, depending on the type of material in which the bacteria are "settled":
- from hay;
- from dried corn trunks;
- from moss;
- from feather grass;
- from the husk of sunflower seeds and buckwheat;
- from wood shavings of a coarse fraction.
Expensive bio-litters are supplemented with organic substances, enzymes and amino acids. Such products are better at recycling biological waste.
Installation and operating rules
Fermentation bedding with biobacteria is laid in several stages:
- The pigsty is completely cleaned of old litter and dried. Before laying the bio-litter, it is recommended to whitewash and disinfect the room, expelling the piglets from there.
- The bottom layer of hay or straw 20 centimeters deep is laid on the floor. Bio-litter does not work without this base. Wood shavings can be used as a substitute for hay.
- Biobacteria are scattered in an even layer over the surface of the straw (hay). The procedure is allowed to be carried out provided that the air temperature in the pigsty is not lower than + 5-10 degrees (this limit is indicated in the instructions).
Bacteria must be scattered, strictly following the recommendations of the instructions. After the end of the procedure, the litter should be watered with a little water. Thanks to this effect, the bacteria wake up and start working. After that, the litter is turned up so that the microorganisms are evenly redistributed over the layers.
Bran, which must be scattered at the same time with the powder from the can, helps to accelerate the growth of bacteria. Thanks to this, microorganisms will immediately receive food. In order to save money, it is recommended to sprinkle bacteria in the area in which manure usually remains.
Microorganisms begin to "work" in full force a few days after sprinkling. This is due to the fact that by this time the piglets have pressed the top layer of straw (hay). In the future, the litter must be periodically agitated.
It is also recommended to add a small amount of biobacteria. This approach will ensure the continuous processing of pig waste products.
Bionastil should be changed either after the expiration date (indicated on the package), or at the moment when the straw becomes wet (stops absorbing moisture). The litter after the expiration date acquires a dark (black) shade.
Pig litter care
Caring for a litter with bacteria is easy. As noted, to maintain conditions suitable for the development of microorganisms, it is sufficient to periodically stir up the straw with a pitchfork. Due to this, the temperature of the lower layer, where heat accumulates, obtained during the processing of manure, will decrease. Also, after tedding, the accumulated moisture is partially evaporated. This prevents the straw underneath from rotting.
Waste material is allowed to be used as plant nutrition. Before applying such fertilizer to the ground, straw with biobacteria should be placed in a compost pit for several days and allowed to rot there.
Is there a benefit to fermentation bedding?
The benefits of using a fermentation bed are noticeable in the first year. Thanks to this product, it is not necessary to frequently change the straw (hay) in the pigsty, which is especially important for those who keep more than five animals. The biomaterial has to be re-laid once a year (and expensive ones - every three years).
The second advantage of fermentation bedding, which cattle breeders pay attention to, is that the air temperature in the pigsty does not drop to low levels even in winter. This reduces the cost of organizing the heating system and installing additional materials on the walls and floors.
The payback period depends on the type of bio-litter and the place of use. If the material is stacked in large buildings that contain several pigs, the cost of purchasing the flooring is reimbursed within the first months. Over time, due to the increase in animal productivity, bio-litter will become an indirect source of additional income.