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In any home garden, vegetable and kitchen waste accumulates, which needs to be disposed of somewhere. A good solution to the problem is to prepare compost, which can be used to fertilize the beds. Consider the types, sizes and making a composter with your own hands, what materials and tools are needed, how to use composters on the site.
Types of composter
The main production material is wood. Therefore, composters can be made from boards, boxes, old pallets. You can use pieces of slate or make the walls of concrete. The main thing is that the composter should correspond to certain dimensions and have slots for air exchange.
Drawings and dimensions
For the composting process to work properly, the compost bin must be the same height, width and length. Usually, for a small personal plot, a composter with dimensions of 1x1x1 m is sufficient.It must be installed on a flat area that would not be flooded with water, at least ten meters from buildings and water sources.
Since the compost does not mature quickly, it is recommended to make a box of 3 identical sections, put fresh residues in the 1st, last year's compost in the 2nd, and ready-made, completely rotted in the 3rd.
The boards should be placed loosely, leaving space between them for moisture to escape and air to enter. The design provides a hinged cover that covers the contents from rain and does not allow animals to get inside. The composter must be strong, withstand the weight of the waste, and durable. If it is made from boards, then you need to cover them with an antiseptic so that they last longer. This is important as wood is exposed to moisture, temperature and bacteria. Processing of other materials is not required.
Required tools and materials
To create a composter you will need: beams and boards, pieces of slate, screws, nails, metal corners, hinges. Of the tools you need a hacksaw, a screwdriver, a hammer, a tape measure, a shovel.
How to make a composter with your own hands
Consider the sequence of making composters from boards, boxes, pallets, slate sheets and concrete. Each option has its own characteristics in the manufacture and use.
From wooden planks
First, you need to dig in the beams in the corners to such a depth that they securely hold the boards when the volume of the garden composter is full. Usually, for a height of 1 m, it is enough to dig in 20-30 cm. For stability, the bars in the ground can be overlaid with stones, pieces of brick or filled with cement.
Fasten boards of approximately the same width between the bars, leaving at least 2 cm gaps between them for air passage. Make the sides and back of the box blank, in the lower part of the front - a door that opens upwards, so that you can gradually remove the finished compost. To protect against rodents from the inside, upholster with a metal mesh. Hang a cover of tightly laid boards on top of the hinges to protect the compost from rain and snow.
From plank boxes
The composter is made of this material in the same way as in the previous example. Old boxes will come in handy, which need to be disassembled into boards and assemble a composter according to the dimensions that are needed. The sequence of its assembly is similar to the assembly of a composter from boards.
It is the easiest to collect. You need to take old pallets and collect a cube from them. The long side of the pallets should be horizontal. For strength, drive the racks into the ground, to which you can nail the pallets with nails or connect them with metal brackets. Make a light hinged wooden lid.
Pieces of slate also need to be either dug into the ground and connected with horizontal boards, or fastened with nails to 4 bars placed in the corners. It is also necessary to leave gaps of 2-3 cm between the sheets. The slate composter should be placed in a shady place in the garden, since the slate can be heated in the sun, because of this the temperature in the heap will be higher than necessary.
The walls of such a composter are made of monolithic concrete or cinder block. A well ring can be used. Usually they are dug into the ground up to half or to the upper level, but they can also be placed simply on the ground. The top of the concrete composter should also be covered with a removable wooden cover.
This is the most durable structure, but it has drawbacks - there are no openings for air supply, it is inconvenient to mix the contents.
In a self-made composter, you can put all plant residues collected in the garden and in the garden, kitchen waste, manure, tops, leaves, grass, substandard vegetables. You can add thin white paper, small branches, shavings, sawdust, old small boards. When laying, different materials can be folded in layers, in layers no more than 15 cm thick, later they will still be mixed.
Do not stack bones, waste of non-herbivores, glass, synthetic materials. Weeds that have already set seeds cannot be added either - despite the temperature effect, they remain viable and can clog the area where compost will be applied as fertilizer. Plant residues with clear signs of disease and pests are also undesirable. Temperature does not always kill pathogens, so there is no need to take risks.
All waste must be crushed to approximately the same size so that it is processed at the same speed. After laying, the pile should be moistened and moistened if it dries out. Maintain a humidity level of 60%. The temperature inside must not be lower than 16 ° C, otherwise the composting process will slow down or stop. Also, it should not rise too much, which also disrupts fermentation processes. To maintain a comfortable temperature, place the composter in partial shade or shade so that it warms up evenly throughout the day.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Stir the contents once a month, then the compost will form quickly and correctly. To speed up the fermentation, you can add an EM preparation to the residues or pour over the fermented herbal infusion. Do not pour water and detergents into the drawer.
After the complete laying of the section, the maturation of the compost lasts at least 1 year. The readiness of the fertilizer can be determined by its dark uniform color, free-flowing structure, and a characteristic earthy smell. You can use 2-3-year-old compost, 1-year-old is not suitable for all crops, over 3 years it already loses some of the nutrients.
A composter in a garden plot is easy to make from scrap materials with your own hands. It will allow solving two important tasks at once - waste disposal and processing them into natural organic fertilizer. For a standard household plot, it is enough to build at least 1 composter with a capacity of 1 cubic meter. m. If you need more humus, nothing prevents you from building as many boxes as you need.