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Aphids can appear anywhere. It is enough for only a few insects to arrive - if there is the required amount of food, they multiply very quickly. Within a few weeks, the plant will be almost completely affected by insects. Therefore, it is important to know how to deal with aphids on an apple tree. If nothing is done, insects will have a negative effect on the tree, which can lead to its death.
The life cycle of apple aphid consists of several generations. Females lay eggs of light green color, which gradually change color to black. Wingless founders emerge from the eggs. Gradually they develop into asexual virgins, which can be of two types - with and without wings. At the end of the growing season, normal egg-laying females and males appear. But females do not need the male's gametes to lay eggs, so insects reproduce at a tremendous rate.
Before you start fighting aphids, you need to study its varieties. And there are quite a few of them:
- Green apple aphid. They are small, greenish-yellow insects with a body length less than 2 mm. The pest is dangerous for apple trees, pears, quince, mountain ash, cotoneaster and some other plantings. It multiplies very quickly, so it can reduce the yield of the tree. Due to insects, red spots form on the fruits, the leaves curl, and the shoots are bent.
- Red-haired aphid. Insects are brown-green, covered with white powdery hair, have black transverse stripes. Body length does not exceed 1.6 mm. Aphids affect leaf blades and fruits. In this case, the plant is harmed by all generations of insects.
- Black aphid. It combines several types of insects at once, which have black, dark blue and green-brown color. It feeds on the juice of young leaves and fruits, for this it has a special proboscis. Because of this, the plant may die or its yield may decrease.
- Bloody. It got its name due to the fact that when crushed, a bright red spot remains in its place. Insects are ovoid, bright orange. Aphids populate on young shoots, leaf cuttings and stalks. At the site of their spread, deep ulcers form, through which harmful bacteria penetrate into the plant. If you do not remove the blood aphids, the plant will stop bearing fruit and die in 2-3 years.
You need to carefully examine the trees in the garden in order to notice pests in time. Otherwise, yields will be significantly reduced.
Signs of the presence of a parasite
It is not difficult to identify aphids on a young or adult tree, since it is accompanied by very pronounced symptoms:
- Reddish spots appear on the leaves of the apple tree, slightly rising above the leaf blade.
- The leaves curl, darken and gradually begin to dry out.
- A sticky liquid forms on their surface, attracting ants.
- On young shoots, cuttings and stalks, there are a large number of small insects that differ in color depending on the variety.
It is easier to determine the presence of insects on young seedlings, since they are of short stature, so any changes will be noticeable immediately. The fact is that aphids begin to parasitize on the upper shoots, so if the tree is tall, it will be problematic to immediately notice.
But gradually the insects become little food, so they descend to the lower tiers. To detect pests, you need to unfold the leaf, and on the back of it you can find many larvae.
When to start fighting
It is necessary to start destroying aphids as early as possible. It is advisable to do this immediately after its detection:
- During the flowering of the tree, aphids will infect the opening buds. As a result, the flowers will begin to fall off. And this can lead to a lack of harvest. Therefore, it is recommended to destroy aphids before flowering.
- If it appeared in June-July, you need to spray the tree with special compounds immediately. Otherwise, insects will lead to the falling off of the forming fruits.
- If you spray the tree during the ripening period, the apples will have to be left on the tree for another 1-2 weeks. During this time, insects will die, and the means that were used for spraying will evaporate.
Therefore, it is advisable to regularly inspect trees for the presence of pests. The sooner aphids are identified, the less damage it will cause to apple trees.
Biological methods of what to plant under an apple tree from aphids
Aphids can appear in any garden. It affects not only apple trees, but also other fruit trees, tomatoes, roses. It is not necessary to use harmful chemicals to scare it away.
To protect a crop, you can plant the following plants next to it:
- Pyrethrum. It contains pyrethrin, which has a destructive effect on the nervous system of insects. Once it enters their body, it causes paralysis. Insects die because they cannot move and feed accordingly. Some individuals can survive, but they lose reproductive functions.
- Lavender. It is a perennial plant with a pleasant smell and bright purple flowers. Grown as an ornamental. Contains essential oils and strong aromatic components. This repels pests.
- Marigolds (calendula). It is an annual plant with orange or yellow flowers. The leaves, stem and flowers have a strong scent that repels aphids.
- Garlic. Its specific pungent smell is not to the liking of aphids, so it does not settle next to it.
- Marigold. These are annual or perennial plants. The flowers can be pure yellow or variegated - reddish yellow. However, it is recommended to choose thin-leaved marigold varieties. Otherwise, snails can start on them, which over time can go to apple trees.
Such plants are very effective at repelling aphids. Moreover, they are completely safe for the human body, in contrast to aggressive chemicals.
The use of insecticides and pesticides is the most effective method of controlling aphids. Harmful insects die almost immediately or several hours after spraying pesticides.
There are a wide variety of chemicals that can be used against aphids.
But in order for the use of such drugs to be effective and safe for humans, a number of simple rules must be followed during the procedure:
- You need to spray the tree in good dry weather, there should be no wind. Chemicals work even after rain, but if they are not washed off with water, the effect will come sooner.
- It is advisable to wear a mask over the eyes and mouth, gloves. Work clothes must be taken, and after spraying, immediately remove and wash.
- Pour the product into a garden spray bottle. After the procedure, it must be washed well, and it is better to spray the rest of the product on the neighboring trees for prevention. Do not allow chemicals to enter waterways.
- Processing is best done in early spring before bud break. Thanks to this, overwintered aphids will quickly die.
- It is not necessary to spray from top to bottom, but from bottom to top. So the product will get to the back of the leaf, from which the pests are located.
- If the chemical gets on the fruits, it is not recommended to pluck them for at least 2-3 weeks. After that, they will need to be washed thoroughly.
- You can not spray pesticides during the flowering of the tree. They lead to the death of bees. As a result, pollination will not occur, and the apple tree will not produce a crop.
- The finished product should be used immediately or during the day. You should not leave it next time - its effect will decrease.
- It is recommended that you purchase a new insecticide every year. The fact is that aphids can develop immunity to the same agent. Therefore, she will not die.
These simple rules will allow you to get rid of pests quickly and efficiently.
If you spray the garden with it in early spring, it will save the trees from various pests - aphids, snails, caterpillars and others. In addition, spraying with Nitrofen is an excellent prevention of scab and other diseases. It comes in the form of a brown paste that dissolves well in water. To prepare an effective solution, it is necessary to dilute 200 g of the product in 10 liters of liquid. But it is forbidden to use the remedy for green vegetation, it can be used either in early spring or late autumn.
Contains petroleum oil to help kill pests quickly. To achieve the effect, the concentration of the solution should be 4%. That is, 400 g of the product must be dissolved in 10 liters of water.
This is a drug of contact-intestinal action. Helps protect the apple tree from aphids, caterpillars, ants and other pests. After spraying, the product will kill them within a few hours. To prepare the solution, it is necessary to dilute one ampoule of the drug with 10 liters of water.
With the help of such a tool, you can fight various pests. It is suitable not only for horticultural crops, but also for indoor plants. Available in pill form. To prepare a spray solution, dissolve 1 tablet in 1 liter of water. Then strain and add another 4 liters of liquid. Process the apple tree. Re-spraying is recommended after 2-3 weeks. The drug has an intestinal contact effect.
Insects will die after eating the sprayed leaves.
Available in the form of tablets or water-soluble solution. Contains 8 isomers effective against Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. Quickly destroys aphid populations. Paralyzes both larvae and adult insects. It persists for a long time on the surface of leaves (up to 30 days), is characterized by resistance to high temperatures and sunlight.
After spraying, the drug immediately begins to act and destroys aphids. In this case, the remedy has an advantage - its effect does not last long, up to 2 weeks, after which it begins to collapse.
Contains malathion, an organophosphorus compound. It is necessary to dilute 90 g of the drug in 10 liters of water. An emulsion is formed, which will need to be sprayed on fruit trees.
Decis is a universal remedy that destroys all types of harmful insects that live on garden and indoor plants. The product has a good contact-intestinal effect, destroys aphids approximately 12 hours after spraying. Produced in sachets of 1 g. This amount must be diluted in 20 liters of water and used as directed. The use of Decis is an excellent prevention of aphids - the insecticide will protect the apple tree for 30 days after spraying.
Intavir is also a versatile product that is suitable for the destruction of more than 50 species of insects, including aphids. The active ingredient of the drug is cypermethrin. Once in the body of insects, it causes paralysis and death. One tablet is designed for 10 liters of water. Only freshly prepared solutions are suitable for spraying.
It is not recommended to store them for longer than a day, as this will lose their effectiveness.
Karate preparation is a very effective remedy. Available in the form of a water-soluble liquid. For 10 liters of water, you need to take 250 g of the product. It is recommended to spray trees in the morning or in the evening in calm weather. The drug is toxic to fish, bees and birds. Therefore, it must be used with caution.
The use of folk remedies and recipes
You can get rid of aphids with the help of folk remedies. However, they act more slowly than chemicals. Consider the most effective folk remedies.
Ash helps to remove aphids in no time. To do this, you can use the following recipes:
- 3 kg of wood ash pour 5 liters of boiling water. Insist for two days, then strain and add 3 tbsp to the resulting infusion. l. liquid soap. Use this product for spraying trees.
- 1.5 kg of ash and 100 g of grated soap are poured into 10 liters of cold water. Leave the mixture for a day. Then it is filtered and used to treat trees affected by aphids.
- Take an equal amount of ash and makhorka. Pour in water and insist for a day. After that, it is filtered and used for its intended purpose.
Ash does not harm plants, but strengthens their immunity. It is also sprinkled with soil to increase fertility. If the soil is very acidic, the apple tree may suffer, this reduces its immunity. Therefore, it becomes susceptible to various diseases, quickly dies from pests. After ash treatment, the acidity of the soil decreases.
Laundry soap is used to combat aphids. It contains nylon acid, which destroys harmful insects. To prepare a soap solution, grate 300 g of 75% soap on a coarse grater. Pour the resulting shavings with 2 liters of warm water, stir well until it is completely dissolved. Pour in another 8 liters of water to make a less concentrated product.
An ammonia solution is used to combat aphids. It burns the mucous membranes, leading to paralysis and death of insects. After that, they fall off. If a small number of aphids remain on the tree, re-spraying may be required.
To prepare the solution, it is necessary to add 1 tbsp to 10 liters of water. concentrated ammonia and liquid soap.
Several effective aphid remedies can be prepared from garlic:
- Infusion of garlic. Divide 10 heads of garlic into cloves, but do not peel them. Pour a liter of water and leave for 3 days. Then drain the liquid and add another 10 liters of water. Use for spraying wood.
- Garlic arrows. They must be laid out under a tree, tied to branches. They have a very pronounced smell, so the aphids fly away.
- Garlic soap solution. It is necessary to grind 400 g of peeled garlic cloves in a meat grinder. Add 3 tbsp. liquid soap and pour 10 liters of water. Insist 3 days. Then strain and process the tree affected by aphids.
It should be borne in mind that all products made from garlic have a very unpleasant odor. Therefore, when spraying, it is recommended to wear a mask on your face.
Pour 200 g of baking soda with 10 liters of water and spray the trees. To increase the effect, a small amount of soap can be added to the liquid. So insects will stick to the leaves, after which they will begin to die under the influence of an alkaline solution.
Also, soda can be used in powder form. To do this, simply sprinkle it with aphids. But this method is effective if there are few insects.
There are several ways to use celandine:
- Dusting. It is necessary to collect the dried grass and grind it into powder. After that, treat the affected areas. In addition, such a remedy can be used for prophylaxis during the flowering period - it protects the flowers from harmful insects.
- The use of green celandine. It must be plucked and scattered under the trees. You can also tie celandine to apple tree branches.
- Infusion. In case of mass infestation of aphids, spraying is required. To prepare an infusion of celandine, it is necessary to fill 1/5 of the bucket with chopped grass. After that, pour in 5 boiling water and leave for half an hour. Then strain, add another 5 liters of liquid.
Celandine juice is poisonous to insects. Therefore, as soon as it enters the body of the aphid, paralysis of all systems will occur, so it will die.
Aphids are sensitive to ammonia vapors. Therefore, such a tool can be effectively used to protect the garden from pest infestations.To prepare the solution, dilute 50 ml of ammonia with 10 liters of water. Mix thoroughly and add soap base - 50 g of liquid or grated solid soap. It is necessary for the aphids to stick to the leaves, otherwise it will fly away and not die. It is not recommended to spray the prepared product with a spray bottle, as small drops of ammonia may not reach the tree. In this case, pouring the solution is required from the watering can.
The infusion of onion peels has a very rare odor. Therefore, insects do not tolerate it and leave the sprayed tree. The use of such a tool makes sense if there is only 1 apple tree in the garden. Otherwise, aphids can move from one tree to another. To prepare the infusion, you need to pour 200 g of onion husks with 10 liters of water. Insist 5 days, then strain and spray the trees. Repeat the procedure 2-3 times at intervals of 5 days.
After mustard enters the body of insects, it causes their death. It can be used in various ways:
- Dry mustard. It is necessary to sprinkle the places where aphids accumulate. The substance acts very quickly and aggressively, so the insects will die within a few hours.
- Infusion. Pour 100 g of mustard with 10 liters of water, leave for a day. Then add another 10 liters of water and 30 g of laundry soap.
- Solution. In 10 liters of water, add 1 tbsp. mustard and vinegar.
Mustard formulations must be used with caution. They can cause severe burning sensation in eyes.
To get rid of aphids, you can grow tobacco on your property, purchase a pack of cigarettes, or use tobacco dust. The easiest is the last option. Tobacco dust is sold in specialty stores, and in order to prepare an aphid repellent, it simply needs to be diluted with water. To do this, pour 50 g of dust with 10 liters of water.
Fumigation can also be carried out. To do this, put a thin layer of straw next to the apple tree, sprinkle with tobacco dust and set it on fire. But you need to watch out for the fire so that it does not spread to the tree.
In the process of killing aphids, other insects can help. To lure them to the site, you must follow some recommendations.
Such insects feed on aphids:
- Ladybug larvae. It is difficult to attract them, it is easier to buy them in flower shops. After that, release them on the apple tree.
- Ground beetle. To attract her, it is necessary to plant nightshade crops in the garden.
- Hoverflies. It is necessary to plant daisies under the tree, the pollen of which these insects feed on. And their larvae eat adult aphids and their larvae.
Birds can also help control pests. To attract them, it is necessary to place birdhouses, feeders, drinkers in the garden.
Mechanical methods of struggle
You can also remove aphids by mechanical means. However, such methods are less effective. The point is that insects can return. Mechanical methods include:
- Remove aphids with your hands. This is a rather problematic activity, since the insects are very small. And when you touch them, they are easily crushed. Therefore, in order not to get your hands dirty, it is recommended to wear gloves.
- Wash off aphids with water pressure. However, in this case, she does not die, so after a while she can return to the tree.
- Cut off affected branches and burn. This method is effective only if the insects have just appeared and have not had time to populate the entire tree. And if you remove too many branches, the apple tree may suffer.
Unfortunately, there are no baits for these pests, as they like to feast on only green leaves. Therefore, to combat it, you have to use one of the above means.
Prevention of aphids on apple trees
To avoid the appearance of aphids in the garden, a number of preventive measures must be followed. Often it is brought into the garden along with the seedlings. Therefore, they must be carefully inspected before purchasing. It is recommended to plant only healthy seedlings in the ground.
For preventive purposes, it is necessary to attract birds to the territory. They will prevent the emergence of not only aphids, but also other harmful insects.
To prevent the occurrence of any pests and diseases, it is necessary to spray the garden in early spring. Aphid eggs are resistant to low temperatures, so they do not die in winter frosts. And until the first leaves appear, they are in hibernation. Therefore, at this moment you can easily destroy them without harm to the plant. Thus, aphids are an insect that adversely affects the condition of the tree. To avoid its death and reduce productivity, it is necessary to prevent the invasion of aphids and destroy it in time.